The energy challenge facing the world is formidable: deliver much more energy; keep supplies secure; and reduce energy's environmental and social impacts.
The last century showed that societies need much more modern energy to make the transition out of poverty. When populations and living standards rise, demand for modern energy can be expected to grow.
Protecting against interruptions to energy supplies is an important part of today's energy challenge. Countries that consume large quantities of energy are increasingly worried about the vulnerability of their supplies.
Somehow, the emissions and negative social impacts from fossil fuels will need to go down, even as the use of coal, oil and natural gas continue to rise. We have done it before - with local air pollution.